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Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Vin, 09 Mar 2012 20:26
de wfrad
I'm trying to do some rank charts starting from 1900 for the Romanian forces.
Problem is finding good original sources, many books in English are inaccurate.
The following charts are what I have managed to find for now but I'm unsure as too how accurate they are;


Re: Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Sâm, 10 Mar 2012 09:58
de Emil_Doctorul
Dear Sir,

Upon your most interesting request, I shall try to comply as much as I can. Therefore, here is a 1895 rank chart for the Romanian Army. The ranks were used until the 1912 uniform reform.


The ranks are (from left to right, from top to bottom):
sublocotenent de jandarmi pedestri - sublieutenant foot gendarmes
guard de geniu clasa a II-a - engineers guard second class, written in the picture as lieutenant, the equvalent
capitan vanatori - captain rifles/chasseurs
maior cavalerie rosiori - major cavalry rosiori (reddies, red hussars, permanent troops)
locotenent colonel artilerie - lieutenant colonel artillery
colonel cavalerie calarasi - colonel cavalry calarasi (mounties, black hussars, territorial)
general de brigada infanterie - brigadier general infantry
general de divizie cavalerie - division general cavalry
general "en chef" - general in-chief, rank for His Majesty the King

fruntas infanterie - private first class infantry
fruntas furier vanatori - private first class fourier rifles
fruntas bun tragator infanterie - private first class sharpshooter infantry
caporal vanatori - corporal rifles
sergent cavalerie rosiori - sergeant cavalry reddies
sergent de muzica infanterie - sergeant of music (bugler, drummer, etc.) infantry
sergent furier jandarmi calari - sergeant fourier mounted gendarmes
sergent major infanterie - sergeant major (equivalent staff sergeant) infantry
sergent adjutant jandarmi pedestri - sergeant adjutant (equivalent sergeant major) foot gendarmes

Marina - Navy

sublocotenent - navy sublieutenant (combatant)
inginer de marina clasa I - naval engineer first class
comandor - navy captain (combatant)

Infanterie sef de muzica clasa I - music chief first class (equivalent captain)

Re: Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Sâm, 10 Mar 2012 11:00
de Emil_Doctorul
The special naval ranks were instated in July 1898, before this naval ranks were the same as the army. There were three categories of ranks: ofiteri de marina (naval officers), ingineri de marina (naval engineers), mecanici de marina (naval mecanics, technical officers on board that manned the engine). As rank insignia the naval officers had the loop on the top stripe, the engineers had black cuffs and the mechanics had red cuffs.
The order of display is the same as the army but the ranks are round the cuffs, just like in all the navies.
Here is an equivalent chart, to form an image.

Naval officers                          Naval engineers                                      Naval mechanics                
sublocotenent (sublieutenant)   subinginer (sub-engineer)                      mecanic clasa a III-a (mechanic 3rd cl)
locotenent (lieutenant)             inginer clasa a III-a (engineer 3rd cl)     mecanic clasa a II-a (mechanic 2nd cl)
capitan (capitan)                     inginer clasa a II-a (engineer 2nd cl)      mecanic clasa I (mechanic 1st class)
locotenent-comandor (major)   inginer clasa I (engineer 1st cl)              mecanic sef (chief mechanic)
capitan-comandor (lt-colonel)   inginer sef clasa a II-a (chief engineer 2nd cl)        ---
comandor (colonel)                 inginer sef clasa I (chief engineer 1st cl)                 ---  
contra-amiral (brigadier general)         ---                                                           ---
vice-amiral (division general)              ---                                                           ---

Re: Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Sâm, 10 Mar 2012 11:17
de wfrad
Thank you,
I now will try to do a chart for around 1900,
Are there any big mistakes in the other charts that you can see?

Re: Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Dum, 11 Mar 2012 13:45
de Emil_Doctorul
Dear Sir,

There are some things that need correcting. I believe it is best that we go through all the historical periods that you wish to know about, one by one.
The next period that I want to turn my attention is the First World War. The new uniform reform came in 1912 and saw the introduction of the green-blue-grey campaign uniform were ranks were warren on epaulets. Here is a rank chart for the 1912 ranks and unit colors.


Translation: The colors of collar taps from the blouse and the greatcoat in order to tell the categories apart and the distinctive rank insignia for the Campaign Dress % High Decree No. 500 from 4 February 1912.

Royal Staff      Generals        Rifles        Border          Foot           1st Rosiori Regiment    2nd         3rd
                    and Infantry                   Guards         Gendarmes

     4th              5th             6th           7th                 8th              9th                        10th       Calarasi

Escort Reg.    Field and      Engineers,    Logistics        Medics        Veterinarians       Pharmacists  Troops
                   Fortification  Pontooniers,  and
                   Artillery,      Railroad,       Administration
                   Firemen       Specialist
                                     Troops etc.

General - of Army Corps
           - of Division
           - of Brigade

Colonel Infantry
Lieutenant Colonel Artillery
Major Cavalry (1st Rosiori Reg.)
Captain Rifles
Lieutenant Administration
Sublieutenant Calarasi/Cavalry
Plutonier major (Master Sergeant, today's NATO eq., similar to sergeant major) Cavalry (9th Rosiori)
Plutonier (Sergeant First Class, today's NATO eq.) Administration
Sergeant Calarasi/Cavalry (1st Calarasi Reg.)
Corporal Artillery (2nd Artillery Reg.)
Private First Class Rifles (6th Rifles)
Private Infantry (4th Infantry)

A few comments:
The Rosiori Cavalry Regiments had their own unit color since their birth in 1868 up to 1940.
For the combatant officers the rank stripes were white and for the noncombatants yellow. For the NCO's it was reversed, yellow for combatants and white for noncombatants.
Another interesting matter is the missing of the rank of "sergent major" which although does not appear in the 1912 Uniform Rule Book, I have found it in a 1914 Gendarmerie list of troops, in it's "classic" position between "sergent" and "plutonier".

However these rulings were soon to be modified in a series of decrees given until entering the war in 1916. One ruling stated that the rifles/chasseurs should wear a green horn instead of the regular dark green collar tap. This green collar tap was given to the new mountain troops/chasseurs, which had a fir tree branch as regimental insignia on head gear and epaulets.
Another ruling from 1916 was to place the stripes for the company officers along the epaulets and to have them repeated on the collar in chevrons. The colors of the epaulets were the ones of the army corps, while the color of the collar was that of the category. However, this system was quickly disbanded, although there were cases of officers that kept these uniforms until the end of the war. Here is an image of it.


Another interesting aspect is the existence of the rank of "ajutor de sublocotenent" (sublieutenant aide). This rank was instated in the line of other European ranks such as Feldwebel-lieutenant in the German Army, Vize-Lieutenant in the Austro-Hungarian army, Adiutante di bataglia in the Italian Army or Temporary Officer and Gentleman in the British Army. The rank was given to student-officers that did not have the time to finish officer's school because of the war or to "plutonier-major"-s that could not accede to the officers' corps. The rank was shown by a "V" shape chevron with the tip towards the neck and the basis at the shoulder end of the epaulet.

I shall return with more information in a short while.

Re: Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Dum, 01 Apr 2012 23:23
de wfrad
With a great deal of help from Emil, here's a chart for the Army ranks from 1895-1912.

Re: Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Dum, 22 Apr 2012 12:10
de wfrad
New udate for 1912 changes, again with the help of Emil.

Re: Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Mar, 08 Mai 2012 00:19
de wfrad
Army Ranks for 1916
With a great deal of help from Emil.

Re: Romanian Rank Insignia

MesajScris: Dum, 24 Iun 2012 13:37
de wfrad
A chart for 1916 to 1923.
Again Emil has helped a great deal with confirming detail.
Transport badge is from a written description of 'winged wheel' so for general guide only, as also the chart.
The 'P' was for regular civilian police that had been militarized to bring them under military command.